The Indians have their own IGRA. Feature of Gambling in Tribal Casinos
In 1988, Ronald Reagan signed the IGRA (The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act) law, which legalized casinos on reservations and allowed the indigenous peoples of America to create new facilities regardless of state policy. In 2016, the total profit of Indian gambling houses was 105 billion dollars. And in 2018, Wind Creek Hospitality tribal casino became the first to test Orion Slant technology. In just 30 years of official existence, Indian gambling houses have become a paradise for gamblers and the worst enemy for Donald Trump. Features of tribal casinos Gambling on the reservations, according to IGRA, is divided into 3 categories: First class – traditional games of Native Americans, which are part of ceremonies or rituals and bring nominal prizes. The owners of tribal casinos must coordinate them only with local leaders. The second class is bingo, poker and other card games in which the opponents play not against the casino, but against each other. The category does not include blackjack and classic video slots. Class II games must comply with IGRA and National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) requirements. The third class is slot machines, blackjack, craps, roulette and other areas that are popular in commercial American casinos. The opening of tribal gambling houses with games of the third class occurs after the approval of the NIGC, tribal leaders and the state authorities in which the reservation is located. The activities of Indian casinos are controlled by chiefs, representatives of the NIGC, the Committee on Internal Affairs and Congress. They make sure that part of the profits goes to the state treasury, and the rest goes to the social security of the community, its economic development and charity. Tribal casino owners cannot keep all the income for themselves. Often the profits from gambling are distributed among the Native Americans living on the reservation. The annual amount of social payments can exceed 120 thousand dollars per person! The main feature of tribal casinos is that they are always located on the territory of a reservation or on land owned by an Indian. This feature allows Native Americans to open gambling houses even in those states where gambling is prohibited. Popular games in tribal casinos Two types of gambling entertainment are widespread in tribal casinos: card and table games of the second category. After changing the algorithm of slot machines, the Indians got the opportunity to install special slot machines in gambling establishments. You can try your luck at baccarat, blackjack or classic video slots only on the territory of popular establishments with a high annual income. This feature of tribal casinos is due to IGRA. The law passed by Reagan allows casinos to be opened on the territory of the reservation, even despite the prohibitions, but the games must be legalized at the level of a particular state. Usually these are lotto, bingo and classic poker with a small number of participants. Casinos that want to expand their portfolio must contact the governor and send a formal request to Congress with a list of desired games. In return, gambling houses undertake to pay income tax to the state as representatives of monopolies. Jim Allen and Orion Slant Technology The pioneer of second-class slots and the savior of tribal casinos was Jim Allen. Until 1993, he was a manager in Donald Trump’s companies in Atlantic City and oversaw the operation of three casinos. In 2001, Jim was hired by the Seminole owners of the Seminole Hard Rock Hotel & Casino complex in Florida. Mr. Allen’s main rival was the governor of the state, Jeb Bush. The official did not want to develop the Indian gambling business in Florida and did not allow tribal casinos to use third-class slot machines. Jim found the perfect solution to the problem. The manager of the Seminole Hard Rock Hotel & Casino persuaded several slot manufacturers to create slot machines with a new algorithm. Outwardly, they looked like ordinary “one-armed bandits” from Las Vegas, but they were connected to a central server. Thanks to the innovation, visitors did not play against the house, but against each other, which did not violate the terms of the IGRA. The slot machines designed by Allen in 2003 became the basis for the new Orion Slant technology from PlayAGS. The company has created a second-class slot machine based on touch controls. The video slot monitor consists of 2 screens. The top is 32 inches and the bottom is 24. The experimental Orion Slant installed at Wind Creek Hospitality in Alabama contains 15 games. If the technology becomes popular, the manufacturers promise to improve the platform’s capabilities and expand the slot machine’s portfolio to 30 applications. So far, gamblers are offered to try their luck in Fu Nan Fu Nu, Aztec Gold, Dragon Fa, 7 Diamond, Kingdom Cash and Vegas Gold. Tribal Casino Fun Facts Run by descendants of Mohicans, Mohegan Sun’s second largest casino is just a few miles from its archrival Foxwoods Resort, a Pequot project. Every year, every member of the Seminole Tribe receives $128,000 in casino dividends just for their lineage. Access to the trust fund opens after the Indian reaches 18 years of age. Only 238 tribes manage gaming facilities across 28 states, according to the NIGC. 329 tribes (58%) do not have their own casinos due to the lack of territories and resources for their construction. Indian casinos by 2017 created more than 620 thousand jobs for local residents. Tribal gambling houses are often not run by reservation residents, but by outside management companies. The Cherokee Casino in North Carolina, the Prairie Band in Kansas, and the Ak-Chin in Arizona are operated by Harrah. The Mohegan Sun gambling house is run by tribal elders and a South African company. Donald Trump tried to compete with tribal casinos in California. He opened the first gambling house that had a non-Indian name. In 2006, the Tramp 29 casino changed hands and changed its name to Spotlight 29. Perhaps it was this failure that turned Trump into the worst enemy of Indian gambling houses. Because of the casino, Jeb Bush has also become a personal enemy of the current US president. The governor prevented Donald Trump from making a deal with the tribes of the state of Florida and legalizing casinos in the 1990s. Native American gambling establishments raise a lot of questions and criticism, including from the administration of Donald Trump, but this does not prevent them from developing, increasing their annual income and introducing new technologies.